This module will provide an introduction into the theory of interactive alignment. The first part will be a presentation of the overall lines of the theory and its implications for second language acquisition. The second part will be a hands-on activity using some freely available NLP tools to have a first analysis of lexical alignment. The module will conclude with a questions and answers session.


Costa, A., Pickering, M. J., & Sorace, A. (2008). Alignment in second language dialogue. Language and cognitive processes, 23(4), 528-556.

Michel, M., & Cappellini, M. (2019). Alignment during synchronous video vs. written chat interactions between L2 learning peers: a methodological exploration. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, 39, 189-216.

Rasenberg, M., Özyürek, A., & Dingemanse, M. (2020). Alignment in multimodal interaction: An integrative framework. Cognitive Science, 44(11): e12911.

Further reading

Pickering, M. J., & Garrod, S. (2004). Toward a mechanistic psychology of dialogue. Behavioral and brain sciences, 27(2), 169-190.

Pickering, M. J., & Garrod, S. (2021). Understanding dialogue: Language use and social interaction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

S13_Interactive alignment – Marco Cappellini